Industrial Psychology Expert Witness On Employment Testing
In TEST VALIDATION IN EMPLOYMENT SETTINGS, industrial psychology expert witness Robert Rose, PhD, and his partner at Rose Porterfield Group, Inc., Robyn W. Porterfield, PhD, write on employment testing. They co-write a column for the Dallas Business Journal titled, "C-Level Coach".If a selection procedure is challenged for adverse impact its validity becomes important. “Validity” is the extent to which test results are related to performance on the job. And, legal issues aside, it is best for the organization to have valid procedures. There are a few key points you need to consider if involved in litigation around testing issues and/or advising clients to avoid issues.
Everything you use to hire or promote is a test. Period. If all you do to hire is interview you have to show that the interview is valid – and that may be difficult.
Validity can be of several types: The three major categories are: 1) construct, the procedure measures an abstract trait such as intelligence or decision-making; 2) content, the procedure has test items or tasks that are needed to perform the job, e.g. using a basic math test for bank tellers; and, 3) criterion-based, e.g. statistical evidence shows people who score high on a test do better in the job than those who score low. None of these are as straightforward as they appear and require someone familiar with psychometrics – usually an Industrial Psychologist – to evaluate.
Validity in the real world is not perfect. It might be ideal to have some perfect measure of success in a controlled study with statistical analysis of hundreds of employees but in the real world that is difficult to do. Short of perfect, what can you do?
Your defense is bolstered by being courteous, consistent, objective, and having documentation. It is also best to avoid – if possible – any one go/no go hurdle. If you have a hiring procedure that is carried out the same way for everyone that consistency is a positive factor; if the results are evaluated in the same way for everyone, that objectivity is a positive factor. If you have some documentation of why and how you use the selection procedure you do that is a positive factor. And, of course, lacking any of those is a problem. E.g. if some people give the same answers as others but get a lower score it is difficult to argue that the procedure is valid. And if you require a college degree you should be able to prove that the degree is highly important, if not essential, to the performance of the job: because that one factor eliminates candidates regardless of other qualifications.
Finally, respect is important. People who feel they were treated disrespectfully are more likely to sue. And if people are treated respectfully, understand why they are being evaluated and why it is a necessary part of the hiring or promotion process they are less likely to be angry or upset.
Pulmonary Medicine Expert Witness On Benefits Of Medical Expert Part 2
In Why a Medical Expert Witness Can Make or Break a Case, pulmonary medicine expert witness Dr. John Penek, MD, FCCP, FAASM, writes: Whether the court case is civil or criminal in nature, both plaintiffs and defendants can benefit from the use of a medical expert witness. This is especially true in an era where forensic technology is growing by leaps and bounds.
Just what can a medical experts offer in the realm of traditional jurisprudence?
Role of a Medical Expert Witness.
Just like an orthopedic surgeon can attest to damages done to the spine or back during a personal injury lawsuit where a hurt plaintiff is suing for monetary compensation, an an expert may be able to prove that the injury claimed by a money seeking plaintiff is being over blow in an effort to obtain ill gained reparations.
Because a medical expert can make or break a case in this regard, their importance cannot be understated.
Present unbiased view of events.
Most court trials involve two views of events that can be difficult to sort through and prove. Because the outcome can in some cases be literally be a matter of life and death, it pays to be able to separate fact from fiction.
Science itself is fairly irrefutable and with a few notable exceptions is rarely inaccurate. This is why medical science can then be employed to prove or disprove claims on both sides of the fence.
Corroborate exonerating evidence.
Medical expert witness can help people who have been wrongly accused by providing information via testimony that breaks down a scenario based on medical evidence. When jurors are given these tools, they are able to weigh various factors to arrive to a conclusion. When irrefutable evidence is presented by such experts, the job of the juror becomes a whole lot easier.
Strengthen the case for the prosecution.
The same can be said for proving defendants guilt. Nine times out of ten, people who are criminally accountable for death or harm and injury to an individual will lie about the circumstances. A medical expert witness can dispute claims of innocence by producing information that calls their story into question.
As forensic technology continues to expand, the testimony and services of a medical expert witness will become a near standard in both civil and criminal court cases. This will lower chances of innocent people being falsely imprisoned for crimes they didn't commit and reduce the chances of the guilty walking away scot free.
For this reason, medical experts will forever change the landscape of the criminal justice system. Dr. John Penek has 30 years experience in the practice of pulmonary diseases, sleep disorders and critical care medicine.
Bus Accidents Expert Witnesses
Bus and truck accident expert witnesses may consult regarding transportation accidents, bus accidents, truck safety, and bus safety. This weekend, investigators said that the FedEx truck that slammed into a tour bus full of students in Orland, CA, could have been on fire right before the deadly crash. The truck crossed a median into oncoming traffic which resulted in the death of 10 people. Highway Safety Investigator Robert Accetta will serve as the The National Transportation Safety Board investigator-in-charge. The NTSB website includes Safety Studies.
NTSB Safety Studies are examinations on topics such as the effectiveness of, or need for, actions by a Government agency in reducing transportation losses, the technical aspects of a transportation system, analysis of accident data, or the history and progress of transportation safety improvements. The study results in the issuance of a narrative report on the facts, conclusions and any applicable recommendations.
One of these reports is Crashes Involving Single-Unit Trucks that Resulted in Injuries and Deaths. Safety Study NTSB/SS-13/01. Washington, DC. Abstract: There are 8.22 million single-unit trucks registered in the United States, which travel more than 110.7 billion miles each year. Although single-unit trucks comprise three percent of registered motor vehicles and four percent of miles traveled, they are involved in nine percent of fatalities among passenger vehicle occupants in multivehicle crashes. Crashes involving single-unit trucks and passenger vehicles pose a hazard to passenger vehicle occupants due to the differences in weight, bumper height, and vehicle stiffness.
The NTSB undertook this study because of concerns about the safety record of single-unit trucks and an interest in identifying countermeasures to address the risks posed by these vehicles. One of the concerns is that single-unit trucks are excluded from some safety rules applicable to tractor-trailers. This study used a variety of data sources, including state records of police and hospital reports, federal databases, and case reviews of selected single-unit truck crashes. Risks were compared between single-unit trucks and tractor-trailers.
The study found that the adverse effects of single-unit truck crashes have been underestimated in the past because these trucks are frequently misclassified and thus undercounted in federal and state databases (approximately 20 percent in the case of fatalities). There are substantial societal impacts resulting from single-unit truck crashes, including deaths, non-fatal injuries, hospitalizations, and hospital costs. Areas identified for safety improvements include the need to (1) enhance the ability of drivers of single-unit trucks to detect vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and cyclists, (2) prevent passenger vehicles from underriding the rears and sides of single-unit trucks, (3) improve conspicuity of single-unit trucks, (4) improve federal and state databases on large truck crashes, (5) continue the functions of databases vital for accurate fatality data or that link hospital data with police reports, (6) examine the frequency and consequences of single-unit truck drivers operating with an invalid license, and (7) research the potential benefits of expanding the commercial driver’s licensure requirement to lower weight classes.
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